Maintaining and strengthening the quality of the faculty is a major responsibility of the Dean and of the members of the faculty. One of the ways in which that responsibility is met is through the recommendation for appointment and promotion of outstanding individuals who show promise of long-range accomplishment in the areas of scholarship, teaching, and national and University service. The criteria for judging this promise and the formal steps through which this promise and accomplishment are recognized are outlined in this manual. The procedures relating to the appointment, reappointment, and promotion of members of the faculty as set down herein aim to protect the quality of that faculty through uniformly high academic standards in the recruitment and promotion of members of that faculty, and to ensure the exercise of affirmative action in that process. Each step is subject to review by the Provost and the President of the University. Any appointment or promotion becomes legally binding only after formal approval by the Trustees of the University of Pennsylvania.